Art Timeline Gizel Rixner ART/IOI June 30, 2013 Norberto Gomez Jr. , PhD Greek Art in the Archaic Period As the museum’s new curator I have been informed that my goal is to improve the content of the museum’s website. After reviewing the guidelines and instructions set forth, I have decided to proceed with my commitment by focusing on the chosen art medium of sculptures and figurines. In addition, I intend to include ten chosen examples of thematically linked artwork in the area of Greek figural sculptures. So, before I precede any further I would like to give you a brief introduction into Greek
Art in the seventh century. The abstract geometric patterning that was dominant between about 1050 and 700 B. C. ‘s supplanted in the seventh century by a more naturalistic style. Greek artists use techniques as diverse as gem cutting, ivory carving, Jewelry making, and metalworking. Greek artists rapidly assimilated foreign styles and motifs into new portrayals of their own myths and customs, thereby forging the foundations of Archaic and Classical Greek art. Fig. 1 525-500 B. C. Lion feeling a bull Marble pendant (2009. 529) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Rogers Fund, 1942
This marble relief, which originally included two facing lions attacking a bull, once decorated the pediment of a small temple or civic building in ancient Greece. A joining fragment, with the forepart of one lion and the middle of the bull, was found near the Olympeion in Athens in 1862, and is now in the National Archaeological allowed the artists to infuse a symmetrical composition with violent movement. The scene may also represent the conflict between civilized life and nature, a theme symbolized later by struggles between the Greeks and the Centaurs. Fig 2 590-580 B.
C. Statue of a Kouros (youth) Archaic, Greek, Naxian marble (32. 11 . 1) Fletcher Fund, 1932 This noble figure of a youth is one of the earliest freestanding marble statues from Attica, the region around Athens. It is a type of sculpture known as a kouros (male youth), characteristically depicted nude with the left leg striding forward and hands clenched at the side. Most kouroi were made in the Archaic period, between the late seventh and early fifth centuries B. C. , and are believed to have served as grave markers or as dedications in the sanctuary of a god.
The pose of the kouros, a lear and simple formula, derives from Egyptian art and was used by Greek sculptors for more than a hundred years. Fig. 3 6th Century B. C. Architectural tile fragment Lydian; Excavation at Sardis Terracotta with red and black painted decoration (26. 164. 1) This brightly painted, mold-made tile is one of many that have been excavated at Sardis, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, in southern Turkey. In places like Lydia and southern Italy, where native stone was scarce or of poor quality, terracotta served as a substitute for stone in architecture.
Tiles such as this one would have riginally decorated the rooflines and outer walls of houses and civic buildings. Being both decorative and functional, some are equipped with a protruding spout that helped drain water from the eaves. The motifs on this tile are part of the repertoire in eastern Greek art that eventually became popular throughout the Greek world. Architectural tile fragment, 6th century B. C. , Lydian; Excavated at Sardis, Terracotta with red and black painted decoration (26. 164. 1) Fig. 4 6th Century B. C.
Antefix with the head of Medusa Tarantine Terracotta (26. 60. 73) Metropolitan Museum of art, New York Fletcher Fund, 1926 Greek art, the Head of Medusa. This gorgonian has softened features to accommodate the classical period. This terracotta antefix with the head of Medusa originally decorated the edge of a roof of an Archaic Greek temple or civic building, possibly near Taranto. Terracotta was a popular medium for architectural details on Greek buildings in southern Italy, and the carved details on this antefix originally would have been brightly painted.
The head of Medusa, a frequently featured device, would have been appropriate along the facade of a building, warding off any approaching evil. Fig. 5 Second half of the 6th Century B. C. Mirror with a support in the form of a nude girl Laconian; Said to be from southern Italy Bronze (38. 11. 3) Fletcher Fund, 1938 This figure of a young maiden standing on a recumbent lion with griffins springing from her shoulders is the support for a bronze mirror. The young girl is nude except for a necklace and strap, from which hang a crescent-shaped amulet and a ring.
In her left hand she holds a pomegranate, an ancient symbol of fecundity. As the handle of a mirror, the figure simply may evoke Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty and love, whose origins are ultimately Near Eastern. Because the fgure is nude, it is closer to Aphrodite’s Eastern aspect, in which she is associated with fertility, than to her Archaic Greek form, which is often elaborately clothed. Fig. 6 Late Century B. C. Patera handle in the form of a youth Greek Bronze (2005. 457) From the third quarter of the sixth through the middle of the fifth century B.
C. , bronze paterae, or shallow basins, with figural handles were produced in Greece as well as in southern Italy. This handle belongs to an early type in which the youth carries a capital formed of two diverging volutes (only the lower parts are preserved), sually flanked by half-palmettos that he grasps with his hands. Typically, the youth stands on either a palmetto or a ram’s head, but here it is a cicada, a potent symbol in antiquity. Along with honeybees, cicadas were the most popular insects in ancient Greece.
The Muses and the god Apollo loved cicadas for their song. Fig. 7 Bronze (28. 77) Fletcher Fund, 1928 The Greek god Herakles is presented here not only as a hero of extraordinary strength and vitality, but also as a beautifully groomed and, thus, civilized individual. This aspect is emphasized in Archaic art. Only later do episodes of his legend, such s the madness that Hera inflicted upon him, become prominent in art. The bronze statuette was probably commissioned for dedication in a sanctuary. Herakles is the greatest of the Greek heroes.
According to legend, he performed several feats throughout his life, among them: accompanying the Argonauts on their quest for the Golden Fleece, taking part in the Calydonian boar hunt, and engaging in an expedition against Troy. Fig. 8 Late 7th Century B. C. Helmet Archaic, Greek, Cretan Bronze (1989. 281. 49) Gift of Norbert Schimmel Trust, 1989 Two large confronting horses in repouss?© decorate the sides of this bronze elmet. On each cheek guard is an incised standing lion that faces toward the opening for the warrior’s mouth.
Images of strength and calm, these creatures lent symbolic protection to the warrior in battle. The horse’s mane consists of S-shaped locks with additional locks tumbling over its forehead and brow. Tracing indicates individual details of anatomy. This helmet is a modification of a Corinthian type, having a profiled cheek piece and lacking the usual long nose guard; originally, there was a separately attached visor. Armor made in Crete during this period was often decorated elaborately. Fig. 9 Second Half 7th Century B. C. Vase in the form of Ketos Greek (Cretan or South Italian), Terracotta (2009. 29) Gift of Ariel Herrmann, in memory of Brian T. Aitken, 2009 This spirited sculptural vase is among the earliest extant representations of a Greek ketos, or sea monster. The creature has a formidable leonine head with big eyes and a goatee, a striped belly, scales, and two flipper like fins. With its long, furry ears pressed back and its large, prominent teeth bared, it gestures menacingly. A hole in the top of the head would have been used to fill the vase, and liquid would ave poured out through the hole in the tongue between the large fangs.
Except for the loss of the end of the body and tail, the vase is remarkably well preserved, with much added red paint on the ears, face, and alternating scales. Late 7th-early 6th Century B. C. Aryballos in the shape of an eagle’s head, Archaic Greek; Rhodian Terracotta (2006. 267) Purchase, Anonymous Gift, in memory of Sleiman and Souad Aboutaam, 2006 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Archaic vases in figural form are delightful for the variety of shapes they assume and the freshness of their execution. Though known from all parts of Greece, their roduction is particularly associated with Rhodes and eastern Greece.
They served as containers for scented oil, and perhaps also for medicinal preparations. This aryballos, in the form of an eagle’s head, is a welcome addition to the Museum’s representation of figural vases. The type is rare, as only about a dozen examples are known. Since aryballos were used by athletes, some of the fgural types may have catered to the tastes of eastern Greek men. As you can see Greek art took on many forms during the seventh century B. C.. According to the “Metropolitan Museum of Art” (2013), (Throughout the sixth century B. C. Greek artists made increasingly naturalistic representations of the human figure.
During this period, two types of freestanding, large-scale sculptures predominated: the male kouros, or standing nude youth, and the female kore, or standing draped maiden. A striking change appears in Greek art of the seventh century B. C. , the beginning of the Archaic period. The abstract geometric patterning that was dominant between about 1050 and 700 B. C. is supplanted in the seventh century by a more naturalistic style reflecting significant influence from the Near East and Egypt). References “Marble Pedimental Sculpture [Greek, Attic] (42. 1. 35)”. Figure 1: In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.
New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-. Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/works-of-art/42. 11. 35 (October 2006) “Statue of a kouros (youth) [Greek, Attic] (32. 11 . 1)”. Figure 2: In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-. Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/works-of-art/32. 11. 1 (October 2006) In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-. Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http://www. metmuseum. rg/toah/works-of-art/ 26. 164. (October 2006) “Antefix with the head of Medusa [Tarantine; Said to be from Taranto] (26. 60. 73)”. Figure 4: In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-. Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/works-of- art/26. 60. 73 (October 2006) “Mirror with a support in the form of a nude girl [Laconian; Said to be from southern Italy] (38. 11. 3)”. Figure 5: In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http:// www. metmuseum. org/toah/works-of-art/38. 1. (October 2006) “Patera handle in the form of a youth [Greek] (2005. 457)”. Figure 6: In Heilbrunn June 26, 2013, from http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/works-of-art/2005. 457 Ouly 2007) “Statuette of Herakles [Greek] (28. 77)”. Figure 7: In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-. Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/works-of-art/28. 77 (October 2006) “Helmet [Greek, Cretan] (1989. 281. 49-. 50)”. Figure 8: In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-. Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http://www. tmuseum. org/toah/works-of-art/1989. 281. 49-. 50 (October 2006) “Vase in the form of a ketos [Greek (Cretan or South Italian)] (2009. 529)”. Figure 9: In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-. Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/works-of-art/2009. 529 (May 2012) “Aryballos in the shape of an eagle’s head [Greek; Rhodian] (2006. 267)”. Figure 10: In Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/works-of-art/2006. 267 (February 2008) June 26, 2013, from, http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/argk/hd_argk. htm (October 2003)