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Ecology BY itmlll 1 . The International Convention about wildlife protection is: Convention on Biological Diversity Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, CITES Framework Convention on Climate Change Convention on Ozone Layer Protection Convention on Combat Desertification 2. The International Convention on control of persistent organic pollutants is: Stockholm convention Montreal protocol Convention on Biodiversity Kyoto protocol 3. The International basic document about greenhouse gases control is: Kyoto protocol Stockholm convention on control of persistent organic pollutants Convention on Combat Desertification .

The International basic document about ozone layer safety is: Montreal protocol 5. The basic national current document about environment safety of Kazakhstan Concept of Ecological Security of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2004-2015 Concept of Transition to Sustainable Development of RK for 2007-2024 Convention on Biological Montreal and Kyoto Protocols Documents of Earth Summits in Rio-de-Janeiro and Johannesburg 6. The basic nature protection law of Kazakhstan is: Ecological Code Water Code On Special Protected Territories Forest Code 7.

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Sustainable use of natural resources means that they should be: ensured the urability of them for future generations all replaced by genetically modified products distributed equally between nations controlled by environmental legacy used at a higher rate 8. The primary body responsible for nature protection in Kazakhstan is: Ministry of Environment Protection Ministry of Agriculture Ecological Union “Tabigat” Society of Nature Protection Ecological Movement “Nevada-Semipalatinsk” 9.

Term “Sustainable development” referred to ecology was first introduced at: Earth Declaration on environment and development, Rio-de-Janeiro, 1992 Earth Summit Declaration on sustainable development, Johannesburg, 2002 Conference on global environment monitoring system, Stockholm, 1972 Conference on Ozone layer protection, Vienna, 1985 Conference on International Trade in Endangered Species, Washington, 1973 10.

The organic part of the soil that helps it to retain its moisture and nutrients is: humus detritus organic fertilizers topsoil microorganisms 11. Erosion is the loss of soil that results from: abiotic factors recycling reforestation contour plowing proper grazing 12. The natural reason of desertification is: wind and water erosion wood cutting and logging ver-pasture and road construction mining industry and weapon tests careless irrigation 13.

The main anthropogenic cause of desertification is: excessive livestock grazing uneven distribution of precipitation high level of solar radiation weak vegetation lack of water supply 14. Percentage of Kazakhstan?¤?‚¬ws soil that is undergone to desertification: about about 30% about 40% about 50% about 60% 15. Indicate the name of Kazakhstan?¤?‚¬ws national park: Altyn Emel Kurgaldzhino Alakol Markakol Naurzum 16. Indicate the name of Kazakhstan?¤?‚¬ws reserve among the following list: Aksu Jabagly Ile-Alatau Kokshetau Burabay 17.

The numbers of plants and animals species included in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan are: 404 and 309, respectively 504 and 409, respectively 304 and 209, respectively 309 and 404, respectively 204 and 109, respectively 18. A special protected territory that is completely removed from an economical use is: zapovednik natural heritage national park biosphere reservate botanical garden 19. The main reason of Aral Sea catastrophe is: careless use of water for irrigation a natural disaster land degradation caused by the Amu-Darya and Syr-Darya rivers flood over-fishing ater pollution 20.

Ecological footprint (of a country or each person) is: the average amount of productive land and ocean needed to supply with food, energy, water, housing, transportation, and waste disposal the average for each country total value of all life quality indices the quality of satisfaction with material and cultural human needs the cost of all goods and services, produced in a country for a given year the level of welfare of a country and its citizens 21 . The largest landscape zone of Kazakhstan is: desert forest steppe mountains grassland 22.

External cost is: armful environmental or social cost borne by people not directly involved in buying or selling a product the cost of environment friendly equipment and technologies the cost of all goods and services, produced in a country per year a measure of the total income of nation?¤?‚¬ws goods and services for a given year earth?¤?‚¬ws resources and processes that sustain living organisms, including humans 23. Industries can help to mitigate problems with water supply by: recycling water during industrial operations marsh drying Oam constructlon releasing of farmer run-off releasing of detergents to the domestic water system 4.

The main source of water pollution is: petrochemical industry hydroelectric power station dam construction fishing thermal pollution 25. Eutrophication of water is accompanied with: intensive algae propagation thermal water pollution bioaccumulation of heavy metals water erosion of soil biomagnification 26. The average renewal rate of rivers is: about 12-17 days about 17 years about 24 hours about 1400 years nonrenewable 27. The amount of the earth?¤?‚¬ws water supply available to land organisms is: less than 1% about 10% more than 50% about 5% about 3% 28.

The world amount of fresh water is: about 1% about 70% 29. Land area of the Earth occupied by the rain forest is: about 25% 30. Land area of the Earth occupied by the forest (including tropical, moderate, boreal) is: about 25% 31. Inaustrles contrl ute o D t na tat damage ana use proper drainage system produce freons plant trees organize natural parks and reserves 32. The primary cause of species extinction is: destruction of habitats exposure to hazardous waste biological magnification acid rain global warming 33.

Biological magnification is the process of: oestructlon I T tney: pollute water increasing concentration of hazardous wastes through food chains concentration of alcium deposits in the shells of dead organisms algal bloom in a lake accumulation of organics in the water reservoirs biogeochemical cycles 34. To prevent or reduce waste it should be done: to use recycled materials whenever possible to transport hazardous waste rather than treating on-site to use over-packaging to avoid using a catalytic converter to release waste into the domestic sewage system 35.

The main physical reason of the photochemical smog is: atmosphere temperature inversion wind speed mixing between air layers atmosphere gas composition precipitation 36. The major component of photochemical smog is: ropospheric ozone sulfur dioxide particulates carbon dioxide 37. The primary reason of acid rain is: burning fossil fuels wood cutting ozone layer depletion marsh drainage water thermal pollution 38. Acid rain is harmful because it can: dissolve nutrients and toxic metals in the soil cause skin cancer in humans cause land flooding destroy ozone layer Increase eart n temperature 39.

The pH of acid rain is: below 5 below 6 below 7 below 8 below 9 40. Acid rain occur as: rain, snow, mist, fog, hail only rain acetic acid lemon acid carbonic acid 41 . The chemical compounds that can cause acid rain: sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide cetic and carbonic acid methane and ammonia carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide ozone and particulates 42. Loss of ozone has serious effects in people because ultra-violet radiation can cause: skin cancer and eye damage liver and kidneys damage respiratory and nervous system damage hepatitis and heart attack anemia and diarrhea 43.

To stop ozone layer depletion it should be done: to replace or recycle freons used in fridge and cooling systems to stop wood cutting to use solar power to use a nuclear power to use geothermal energy 44. The heights of troposphere and stratosphere above the earth: 0-15 km and 15-55 m respectively 0-5 km and 5-50 km respectively 0-10 and 10-80 km respectively 0-12 and 12-100 km respectively 0-20 and 20-200 km respectively 45.

The greenhouse gases are the following: C02, CFCS, CH4, NO, N02, troposphenc ozone stratospheric ozone NH3, 02, noble gases chlorine and fluorine S02, N02, NO, CO 46. Alternative sources of energy include: sun, wind and waves natural gas, peat and tides 011, coal ana geotnermal energy biomass, nuclear energy and oil oil, coal, and natural gas 47. To reduce greenhouse effect it should be done: to use alternative sources of energy to avoid sewage water o burn the trees and rubbish to cut off rain forest to use fertilizers 48.

Distribution of gas concentrations in the atmosphere in descending order is: nitrogen – oxygen – argon – carbon dioxide carbon dioxide – oxygen – nitrogen -argon oxygen – argon – nitrogen – carbon dioxide argon – nitrogen-carbon dioxide – oxygen oxygen – carbon dioxide- nitrogen – argon 49. Scientists predict the global average temperature will rise by 2025 and by 2100 to: IOC and 30C, correspondingly 050C and 20C, correspondingly 30C and 50C, correspondingly 50C and 70C, correspondingly 70C and 100C, correspondingly 50.

Factors that specifically damage genetic material of organisms are: mutagens teratogens carcinogens pesticides fertilizers 51 . The global warming is primarily caused by: increase of greenhouse gases concentration increase of tropospheric ozone decay of the organic compounds increase of chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) concentration use of alternative kinds of energy 52. Herbicides are chemicals that can control population growth of undesirable organisms such as: plants worms fungi insects bacteria 53.

Factors that specifically cause abnormalities during embryo development are called: teratogens mutagens fungicides 4. Organic garbage that is a subject to decay by microorganisms is called: DloaegraaaDle 100% recycled renewable nonbiodegradable 55. Renewable resources include: humus coal natural gas minerals 56. Nonrenewable resources include: soil wildlife forests phytoplankton 57. The main characteristic of biomass pyramids of freshwater or marine is to be: inverted right depends on a particular ecosystem do not change changes cyclically 58.

According to number pyramids, a quantity of organisms at a higher trophic level: decreases increases 59. Amount of energy passing from one trophic level to the next one is: 10% 00% 25% 1% 60. Consumers, such as humans, that obtain their nutrients by eating both producers and other consumers are called: omnivores carnivores herbivores scavengers autotrophs 61 . Consumers, such as wolves, that obtain their nutrients by eating other consumers are: carnivores omnivores autotropns 62. Consumers that obtain their nutrients by eating producers are: herbivores 63.

The wolf and the fox are on the same trophic level because both animals: eat herbivore organisms live on the land use food at 10% have large size have similar behavior 64. Autotrophic organisms are: plants birds reptiles 65. Heterotrophic organisms are: jellyfish chemosynthetic bacteria photosynthetic bacteria phototrophs 66. Organisms that use ready food are called: heterotrophs chemotrophs producers 67. Nitrogen in the atmosphere is captured by: nitrogen-fixing bacteria nitrifying bacteria denitrifying bacteria 68.

Primary productivity is the energy contained in the trophic level of: producers decomposers 69. Plants in an ecosystem play the following role: synthesize organic substances from inorganic compounds are primary consumers decompose organic substances to inorganic compounds are secondary consumers are decomposers 0. Define the right order of components in the trophic chain “tree producer – primary consumer – secondary consumer heterotroph – primary consumer – secondary consumer autotroph – heterotroph – decomposer producer – heterotroph – decomposer producer – consumer – decomposer 71 .

The following is Not correctly matched: herbivore – autotroph heterotroph – consumer phototroph – plants carnivore – animals bacteria – decomposer 72. The major producers found in aquatic ecosystems are: aquatic plants zooplankton benthos – hare- fox”: 73. Two species that occupy a very similar niche are likely to be: competitors ommensalists mutualists predators parasites 74. An interaction between two species in which species benefit each other is: mutualism parasitism competition predation commensalism 75.

Type of biotic relationship when one species benefits and other one has neither harm nor profit: commensalism 76. Example of interspecific competition is relationship between: black cockroaches and red cockroaches thinning fur trees out in a population organism-host and worms-parasite wolves in a pack some mushrooms and trees 77. Competition, predation, and symbiosis are all types of: biotic relationships

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