Chapter 5: Jails Key Terms Today we call this role detention, the part of corrections that takes place before conviction and the imposition of sentence. The fee system endured for several hundred years. Today we have tuberculosis, hepatitis, and Hl. ft, early English Jails had gaol fever (typhus), pneumonia, small pox, starvation and a host of other ailments related to malnourishment, no medical care, and infectious diseases that spread rapidly in close quarters.
Linda Zupan called the medieval English Jail a dumping ground for social outcasts, misfits, and those whom no care options existed at the time, such as he insane and the diseased, particularly lepers. The most influential colonial Jail, Philadelphia’s Walnut Street Jail, considered the birthplace of the penitentiary regimen, was closed in 1835 and eventually completely demolished. Also excluded are state-operated Jails.
Juveniles are generally housed in separate detention centers or detention homes or halls, but some facing adult trials or living in rural areas where Juvenile facilities are not available will be confined in adult Jails. These first-generation Jails practiced little lassification of inmates; a middle aged businessman arrested for traffic violations might be thrown into a bullpen with murders and rapists who had been in Jail for years.
These second generation Jails were designed to provide indirect surveillance of inmates by Jailers who watched from glassed-in control booths. Many of the newer, larger urban Jails now apply the principles of direct supervision are called third- generation (or new-generation) Jails. Hans Mattick, in his influential research of the 1960’s and 1970’s, referred to Jail administration in this era as guided by the principle f custodial convenience, defined as “everyone who can, takes the easy way out and makes only the minimal effort. Cooks County’s Special Operations Response Team (SORT) was accused of raiding a maximum- security cellblock for the sole purpose of beating and terrorizing gang members, then filing reports to cover it up, according to Chicago Tribune reports. The Pretrial Services Resource Center in Washington D. C is a clearinghouse that sends consultants to work with local Jails and courts in establishing guidelines to accomplish two objectives??”diverting pretrial offenders rom the Jail to treatment and supervision options, and making sure offenders show up for disposition or trial as scheduled.
The most prolific growth over the past decade has been in drug courts, which try to connect offenders with treatment and social services as options to conviction and Jail or prison time. The Jail might actually become the hub for many forms of correctional intervention at the local level, eventually evolving into the community correctional center scholars and Jail professionals have imagined for years. key terms By monicaJohnson93