Life Sciences Make up test guide BY ntqua2016 Make-up test study guide -rest 1 : 1 . 3 categories of natural sciences a. biology: microbiology b. physical: chemistry c. applied: medicine 2. relevant steps to scientific method a. observation b. hypothesis c. experimentation d. conclusion e. extra: theory 3. Science: objective, testable, fact; non-science: subjective, untestable, opinions 4. Life is is a characteristic that distinguishes objects that have signaling and self- sustaining processes from those that do not, a.
Characteristics: respond to stimuli, reproduction, use energy, evolution, have DNA, maintain homeostasis 5. Organic substance: substance whose molecules contain one or more (often many more) carbon atoms (excluding carbonates, cyanides, carbides). (EX: plant matter, animal matter) a. Inorganic: Any compound lacking carbon atoms, or when present is tonically bound to other atoms. (EX: water walt 6. Carlos Linnaeus was responsible for creating binomial nomenclature which is the naming process to give genus and species to an organism for the study of taxonomy.
He is known as the “father of Taxonomy’ 7. Taxons: Domain, Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species (Domain is broadest, species is least inclusive) 8. Kingdoms: Monera, fungi, Protista, plantae and animalia 9. Human taxonomy: Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrate, mammalia, Primata, Hominidae, Homo, sapiens 10. Monera – Escherichia coli a. Protista – Volvox aureus b. Fungi – Aspergillus niger c. Plantae – Quercus alba d. Animalia – Spongilla cenota 1 1 . Symbiosis is when two organism are in a relationship where at least one organism is benefitting from the other.
A lichen is a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a single celled alga, while mycorrhiza is a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a vascular plant root 12. Non vascular plant: plants without xylem or hloem a. Vascular plant: seed bearing plants with phloem and xylem 13. Eudicot: vascular, flower parts in 2s, 4s or 5s; netted venation of leaves, seeds possess 2 seed leaves a. Monocot: paralled venation, vascular, tap root system, pollen monosulcate 14. Atom – particle that is the basic unit of all matter 15.
Ionic bond – attraction of oppositely charged atoms (ex: salt NaCl) a. Covalent: two atoms sharing an electron (ex; hydrogen H2) b. Hydrogen – weak bond between a hydrogen atom and another atom in a covalent bond (ex: water H20) 16. Macromolecule: carbohydrates, subunit: simple sugars, function: conserve energy; omprised of monosaccharide and polysaccharides 17. Cell membrane: protection of cell a. Chloroplast: photosynthesis b. Nucleus: DNA c. Mitochondrion: ATP 18. Advanced plants have 2 organ systems: root and shoot a.
Advanced animals have 9 organ systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, digestive, reproductive, nervous, excretory, respiratory and circulatory 19. A HeLa cell is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research. a. It is the oldest and most commonly used human cell line. The line was derived from cervical cancer cells taken on February 8, 1951 from Henrietta Lacks, a patient who eventually died of her ancer on October 4, 1951. b. The cell line was found to be remarkably durable and prolific as illustrated by its contamination of many other cell lines used in research. 20.
Plant tissue systems: ground tissue (stores materials, photosynthesis), vascular tissue (distribute water and nutrients) and dermal tissue (covers/protects plants) a. Animal tissue: epithelial (covers body); connective (structural support), muscle (moves body) and nervous (detects stimulation and sends info) -rest 2: 21 . Genetics: scientific study of inheritance of traits from one generation to the other a. Gene: basic unit of inheritance that carries information that goes toward determining your traits b. Chromosome: threadlike structure that consists of DN and carried part of a cell’s genetic makeup 22.
Traits are inherited characteristics that may be physical, physiological or immunological a. Eye color, skin color, fur color, widows peak, attached/hanging earlobes 23. Haploid v. Diplod: a diploid cell carries two sets of chromosomes, while a haploid cell carries only one. (a diploid cell has double the chromosome number) the diploid chromosomal number for humans is 46 and the haploid chromosomal number is 23 24. Mitosis is an example of asexual reproduction, it occurs when 1 2N parent cell splits into two 2N daughter cells.
It is significant because this is how the body repairs itself and grows a. Meiosis occurs in sexual reproduction. 1 parents cell splits into 4 haploid daughter cells. It is significant because meiosis results in gametes which are necessary for sexual reproduction. It also adds variation/diversity to each generation 25. A Punnett square predicts the probability of an offsprings chances of receiving traits from its parents; it predicts the probability of genotype and phenotype. A punnett square is reliable because it uses mathemetics/statistics to determine the probabilities 26.
N cells involed: sexual reproduction ; 2N organs: asexual reproduction 27. One organ derived from each germ layer of gastrula: ectoderm – skin; endoderm – heart; mesoderm – muscle 28. To calculate the fertile periods of the 28 day cycle, you start at the first day of a woman’s menstrual cycle then court 14 days ahead; the two-three days surrounding the 14th day of the cycle are the woman’s most fertile days. Any other days are infertile period, however, this is not an exact science because each woman’s cycle is different