CHAPTER Ill Methods and Procedures Under this chapter, we look up all our tools, equipments, formulas used, and our work breakdown, schedule and the bill of materials. Design Methodology The researchers used a microcontroller Arduino Mega 2560. It is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 14 can be used as PWM outputs The schematic and board layout designing the researchers used EAGLE 5. 6.. Tools and Equipment Used Figure 3. Breadboard A Breadboard is used to make up temporary circuits for testing or to try out an idea. No components. Parts will not be damaged so they will be available to re-use afterward. It is called a protoboard this is a construction base for prototyping of electronics. The term commonly used to refer to solder less breadboards (plug board). Solder less breadboards does not require soldering, it is reusable. This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with the circuiit design. Older breadboard types did not have this property.
A strip board (veroboard) and similar prototyping printed circuit boards, which are used to build permanent soldered prototypes or one-offs, cannot easily be reused. A variety of electronic ystems may be prototyped by using breadboards, from small analog and digital circuits to complete central processing units (CPUs). soldering is required so it is easy to change connections and replace Hgure s. Mini Drill or PCB Drill is equipped with an electronic spindle rotation speed control. It also includes a flexible shaft which will be a real help.
It allows for processing hard- to-reach components inaccessible by a large-sized drill. Just put the attachment to the drill’s spindle and in addition, you will find a basic set of required consumables such as cut-off wheels, grinding disks , various finishing and polishing attachments, ine polishing attachments, collets to clamp devices of various diameter, and wrenches to replace these consumables. Using this drill kit, you can easily process various surfaces, (for e. g. remove paint from metal surfaces, sharpen cutting tools, process a printed board or cut off self-drilling screws or other fasteners).
This mini drill kit has a small size, easy to use, and fits various applications. Figure 3. 3 Pliers Pliers are a hand tool used to hold objects firmly, for bending, or physical compression. Generally, pliers consist of a pair of metal first-class levers Joined at a ulcrum positioned closer to one end of the levers, creating short Jaws on side of the fulcrum, and longer the force of the hand’s grip to be amplified and focused on an object with precision. The Jaws are used to manipulate objects for small or unwieldy to be manipulated with the fingers.
There are many kinds of pliers made for various general and specific purposes. Hgure 3. 5 solaerlng Iron Soldering iron is a hand tool used in soldering. It supplies heat to melt the soldering lead so that it can flow into the Joint between two work pieces. A soldering iron is composed of a heated metal tip and an insulated handle. Heating is often achieved lectrically, by passing an electric current through a resistive heating element. Portable irons can be heated by combustion of gas stored in a small tank, often using a catalytic heater rather than a flame.
Simple irons less commonly used than in the past were simply a large copper bit on a handle, heated in a flame. Soldering irons are most often used for installation, repairs, and limited production work in electronics assembly. High-volume production lines use other soldering methods. Large irons may be used for soldering Joints in sheet metal objects. Less common uses include pyrography and plastic welding. Figure 3. 6 Soldering Pump A desoldering is the removal of solder and components from a circuit for troubleshooting, for repair purposes, component replacement, and to salvage components.
Electronic components are often mounted on a circuit board, and it is usually desirable to avoid damaging the circuit board, surrounding, components, and the component being removed specialized tools, materials, and techniques have been devised to aid in the desoldering process. Hgure 3. / cutter A utility knife is a knife used for general or utility purposes. The utility knife was originally a fixed blade knife with a cutting edge suitable for general work such as utting hides and cordage, scraping hides, butchering animals, cleaning fish, and other tasks.
Today, the term “utility knife” also includes small folding or retractable- blade knives suited for use in the modern workplace or in the construction industry. Figure 3. 8 Soldering Lead A tin/lead solders, also called soft solders, are commercially available with tin concentrations between 5% and 70% by weight. The greater the tin concentration, the greater the solder’s tensile and shear strengths. Figure 3. 9 Hacksaw A hacksaw is a fine-tooth saw with a blade held under tension in a frame, used or cutting materials such as metal or plastics.
Hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal arch with a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. The blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. On the push stroke, the arch will flex slightly, decreasing. Chapter IV Presentation of the Design Block Diagram Hgure 4. 1 Block Diagram The block diagram above shows the system process. Four (4) 7 segment display and our (4) shift register connected in the microcontroller.
Shift register is used to manipulate the in and out of voltages in the pins of the 4 segment display. Component Specification Figure 4. 2 Resistor Resistors are the most commonly used component in electronics and their purpose is to create specified values of current and voltage in a circuit. Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel- hrome).
Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications.
Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Figure 4. 3 PIR (Passive Infrared) PIR sensors allow you to sense motion, almost always usea to detect wnetner a human has moved in or out of the sensors range. They are small, inexpensive, low- power, easy to use and don’t wear out. For that reason they are commonly found in appliances and gadgets used in homes or businesses.
They are often referred to as PIR, “Passive Infrared”, “Pyroelectric”, or “IR motion” sensors. PIRs are basically made of a pyroelectric sensor (which you can see above as the round metal can with a rectangular crystal in the center), which can detect levels of infrared radiation. Everything emits some low level radiation, and the hotter something is, the more radiation is emitted. The sensor in a motion detector is actually split in two halves. The reason for that is that we are looking to detect motion (change) not average IR levels. The two halves are wired up so that they cancel each other out.
If one half sees more or less IR radiation than the other, the output will swing high or low. Along with the pyroelectic sensor is a bunch of supporting circuitry, resistors and capacitors. It seems that most small hobbyist sensors use the BISSOOOI (“Micro Power PIR Motion Detector ‘C”) , undoubtedly a very inexpensive chip. This chip takes the output of the sensor and does some minor processing on it to emit a digital output pulse from the analog sensor. For many basic projects or products that need to detect when a person has left or entered the area, or has approached, PIR sensors are great.
They are low power and low cost, pretty rugged, have a wide lens range, and are easy to interface with. Note that PIRs won’t tell you how many people are around or how close they are to the sensor, the lens is often fixed to a certain sweep and distance (although it can be hacked somewhere) and they are also sometimes set off by housepets. Figure 4. 5 Wires A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for general lighting. Figure 4. Wires Wire is one of the most basic, and crucial components available. A wire allows for the unimpeded flow of electricity. A wire is used to connect the components of a circuit together. A wire can be thought of as any device that is intended to route electricity from one component to another. In this sense a wire can be the traditional metal core, insulator wrapped wire. Additionally it can also be the trace on a circuit board or the solder connection between two components in the absense of a “traditional” wire. 4. Araulno Mlcrocontroller An Arduino board consists of an Atmel 8-bit AVR microcontroller with complementary components to facilitate programming and incorporation into other circuits. An important aspect of the Arduino is the standard way that connectors are exposed, llowing the CPU board to be connected to a variety of interchangeable add-on modules known as shields. Some shields communicate with the Arduino board directly over various pins, but many shields are individually addressable via an 12C serial bus, allowing many shields to be stacked and used in parallel.
Official Arduinos have used the megaAVR series of chips, specifically the ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, and ATmega2560. A handful of other processors have been used by Arduino compatibles. Most boards include a 5 volt linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator (or ceramic resonator in some variants), although some designs uch as the LilyPad run at 8 MHz and dispense with the onboard voltage regulator due to specific form-factor restrictions.
An Arduino’s microcontroller is also pre- programmed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory, compared with other devices that typically need an external programmer. At a conceptual level, when using the Arduino software stack, all boards are programmed over an RS-232 serial connection, but the way this is implemented varies by hardware version. Serial Arduino boards contain a level shifter circuit to convert between RS-232-level and TTL-level signals. Current Arduino boards are programmed via USB, implemented using USB-to-serial adapter chips such as the FTDI FT232.
Some variants, such as the Arduino Mini and the unofficial Boarduino, use a detachable USB-to-serial adapter board or cable, Bluetooth or other methods. (When used with traditional microcontroller tools instead of the Arduino IDE, standard AVR ISP programming is used. ) The Arduino board exposes most of the microcontroller’s 1/0 pins for use by other circuits. The Diecimila, Duemilanove, and current Uno provide 14 digital 1/0 pins, six of which can produce pulse-width modulated slgnals, ana SIX analog Inputs I nese plns are on tne top 0T tne Doara, Vla female 0. 10-inch (2. mm) headers. Several plug-in application shields are also commercially available. The Arduino Nano, and Arduino-compatible Bare Bones Board and Boarduino boards may provide male header pins on the underside of the board to be plugged into solderless breadboards. Figure 4. 7 Speaker A loudspeaker (or “speaker”) is an electro acoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input. Non-electrical loudspeakers were developed as accessories to telephone systems, but electronic amplification by acuum tube made loudspeakers more generally useful.
The most common form of loudspeaker uses a paper cone which is vibrated by an attached voice coil electromagnet between the poles of a permanent magnet, but many other types exist. Where high fidelity reproduction of sound is required, multiple loudspeakers may be used, each reproducing a part of the audible frequency range. Miniature loudspeakers are found in devices such as radio and TV receivers, and many forms of music players. Larger loudspeaker systems are used for music, sound reinforcement in theatres and concerts, and in public address systems. Printed Circuit Board