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Past exam questions and mark schemes for Core Studies 1 (2540) 2540 Mark scheme January 2008 Cognitive Psychology 1 . From the study by Loftus and Palmer outline one limitation of the laboratory method used to investigate memory. [2] Any one from: low ecological validity, demand characteristics, artificial etc 2 marks Other appropriate answers Term and Example related to study 2 marks Partially correct answer Term OR example 1 mark 2. In the study by Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith autistic children were studied: (a) Identify the other two groups of children who were studied. 2] Any two from: Downs yndrome, ‘normal’ 2 marks (b) Explain why it was necessary to have these other groups. [2] Any one from: to provide a baseline measurement/comparison to control for intelligence 2 marks Partially correct answer To show autistic children lack a theory of mind 1 mark 3. Outline one ethical implication of teaching Washoe to use sign language in the study by Gardner and Gardner. [2] Any one from: protection – she was alienated from her species, difficult to re integrate her after the study. 2 marks Other appropriate answers Consent, Right to withdraw with explanation 2 marks Partially correct answer

Term identified without explanation eg. Only with Gardners 1 mark 4. Deregowski describes various experiments on pictorial perception carried out in Africa. Outline the procedure for two of these experiments. [4] Any two from: Hudson’s picture, cube construction, Gregorys apparatus, trident illusion split elephant, anecdotal evidence 2 marks each Partially correct answer Basic identification of task 1 mark NOT Findings Developmental Psychology 5. From the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross on imitation of aggression: (a) Identify two of the independent variables in the study. 2] Any two from: gender of child, ender of modal, aggressive/non aggressive model, 1 mark each (b) Outline one weakness of conducting this study on children. [2] Any one from: ethics – consent, protection etc, difficulties in them understanding, 2 marks Other appropriate answers Identification AND description 2 marks Partially correct answer Identification OR description 1 mark 6. From the study by Hodges and Tizard identify two differences in the quality of relationships experienced by the ex-institutional adolescents and the control group. 2] Any two from: control group showed more affection, confiding etc 1 mark each To ain full marks for each the difference needs to be clear / outllne one way In wnlcn tne study Dy Freud on llttle Hans may nave Deen Olasea. [2] Any one from: Father may have interpreted Hans’s behaviour in subjective way; Freud may have interpreted father’s reports in biased way. Father was a supporter of Freuds theory 2 marks Partially correct answer Identification without explanation 1 mark 8. The table below shows some of the results from the study by Samuel and Bryant on conservation.

Outline two conclusions that could be drawn from this table. [4] Mean errors made in each condition across materials Age Standard One Judgement Fixed array 5yr 6yr 7yr 8yr 9 6 3 2 7 4 5 Any two from: age affects conservation, number of questions asked affects conservation, seeing the transformation affects conservation. With evidence from table 2 marks each Partially correct answer Conclusion without evidence 1 mark Physiological Psychology 9. Identify two measurements that were taken in the study on sleep and dreaming by Dement and Kleitman. 2] Any two from: EEG – measured eye movement/patterns, brain activity, REM or NREM dream recall, duration of dream 1 mark each 10. From the study by Sperry on split brain patients: a) Identify two ways in which information could be sent to the left hemisphere. [2] Any two from: right visual field in either eye, right hand, right ear etc. 1 mark each NOT THE EYE (b) Outline one difficulty Sperry may have experienced in attempting to present information to one hemisphere in the split brain patients. 2] Any one from: the participant’s eye/head may have moved so information went in to other hemisphere 2 marks Other appropriate answers Participants reluctant to use left hand 2 marks 11. From the study on murderers’ brains by Raine, Buschbaum and LaCasse outline ow the PET scans worked. [2] Accurate description Two from: Tracer, headholder, glucose metabolism, mmslices,hotspots, different locations of the brain 2 marks 12. Outline two ways in which the study by Schachter and Singer on emotions lacked ecological validity. 4] Any two from: set in laboratory, unusual tasks, injections, stooge behaviour. 2 marks each Other appropriate answers Identification AND example for 2 marks each Partially correct answer Identification ONLY 1 mark Social Psychology 13. From tne study on ooealence Dy Milgram suggest one reason wny tne articipants were given a sample shock. [2] Any one from: use of cover story, sample shock etc. 2 marks Other appropriate answers Made them believe machine worked 2 marks 14. From the subway study by Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin: (a) Outline one finding about the helping behaviour of the bystanders. 2] Any one from: effect of race/state of victim, effect of early/late model, passengers reactions, etc MUST HAVE COMPARISON 2 marks Partially correct answer Statement of finding 1 (b) Outline one difficulty that may have been experienced conducting this field experiment. 2] Any one from: difficult to control extraneous variables, problems with observing behaviour, ethics, participants may have seen it before, less drunk trials etc. Must be linked to study for full marks. 2 marks Partially correct answer Not linked to study 1 mark 15. Suggest one way in which the study conducted by TaJfel could be considered reductionist. 2] Any one from: simplistic explanation of discrimination, laboratory experiment, tasks lack relevance etc ANSWER AND EXPLANATION RELATED TO STUDY 2 marks Partially correct answer Definition of reductionism or answers not related to tudy 1 mark 16. Outline two pieces of evidence that suggest that the guards enjoyed their role in the prison simulation study by Haney, Banks and Zimbardo. [4] Any two from: they volunteered to do extra shifts, they were sad when the study ended early, they thought up inventive ways of punishing the prisoners. marks each Other appropriate answers Talked about situation/roles when not observed 2 marks Partially correct answer Responses from Q but no explanation 1 mark Individual Differences 17. From the study by Gould explain why the military recruits were given IQ tests. [2] To place them in military positions based on intelligence. 2 marks Other appropriate answers Yerkes wanted data to support his research 2 marks Partially correct answer No explanations eg. Blacks less intelligent than whites 1 mark 18. From the study by Hraba and Grant on racial preference: (a) Identify two features of their sample. 2] Any two from: 4-8 years of age, from Lincoln Nebraska, 160 children in total, 89 black 71 white children. 1 mark each Partially correct answer Children AND half White half Black Children AND one area of USA=I (b) Outline one reason why it could be difficult to generalise from this sample. 2] Any one from: all from one area, from one era PLUS description related to study 2 marks Partially correct answer Identification 19. From the study by Rosenhan (sane in insane places): (a) DescrlDe one type 0T data tnat was gatnerea.

Any one from: qualitative data was collected e. g. on behaviour of the staff Quantitative data eg. number of times questioned, amount of eye contact, days in hospital etc. 2 marks Partially correct answer Identification ONLY 1 mark (b) Outline one advantage of this type of data. [2] Any one from: Indepth, Rich source of info. Comparison, Statistics etc. MUST relate to tudy 2 marks Partially correct answer if not related to study 1 mark 20. Identify two methods used to collect data in the study by Thigpen and Cleckley on multiple personality disorder. 2] Any two from: psychometric tests,proJective tests, EEG, hypnosis, interviews etc 1 mark each NOT INTERVIEWS AND SELF REPORT 2540 Mark scheme June 2007 1 From the study by Loftus and Palmer on eyewitness testimony: (a) Identify two of the verbs used to describe the car accident seen in the films. [2] Any two from: hit, smash, collided, contacted, bumped. 1 mark each (b) Outline one explanation for the ifferent speed estimates given by the participants. [2] The participants may not have actually remembered the speed the cars were travelling at but gave an answer in accordance with the verb used in the question. Demand characteristics), actual changes in memory, people are bad at estimating speed. Partially correct answer: finding: harsher the verb faster the speed estimate 1 mark 2 In his review on the perception of pictures Deregowski suggests that pictures do not offer a universal language for people of different cultures. Describe ONE finding from the review which would support this claim. 2] Any one from: different responses detailed in: the stories by missionaries, the Hudson antelope/hunter picture, the trident illusion, the cube construction, the preference for split style drawings.

Partially correct answer: conclusions eg Africans did not perceive in 3D 1 3 In the study by Gardner and Gardner Washoe used several combinations of words. Identify TWO of these combinations. [2] Any two from: gimme tickle, open food drink, please open hurry, gimme drink please, go in, go out, go sweet, open flower, open key, listen eat, listen dog, open out. (order not important) 1 mark each Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith used three control questions in their study on autism. Outline TWO reasons why these control questions were used. 4] Any two from: the memory question to make sure that the children could remember what had happened in the experiment, the naming question to make sure that the children knew which doll was which, or the reality question to check that the children knew where the marble really was. Partially correct answer: eg general answer such as to check understanding, without specific reference to study, identification of questions le naming, reallty, memory. mark eacn Development Psychology 5 Suggest ONE ethical issue raised in the study by Freud on little Hans. 2] Any one from: protection, privacy, withdrawal, consent 2 marks Partially correct answer: identification without explanation 1 mark 6 From the study by Samuel and Bryant identify TWO factors that were found to affect the children’s ability to conserve. [2] Any two from: materials used (mass, volume, number), age of the child, one or two question version of the test, seeing the transformation. 1 mark each 7 From the study by Hodges and Tizard on social relationships: (a) Identify TWO haracteristics that were used to match the comparison groups with the ex- institutional adolescents. 2] Any two from: age (16), sex, one or two parent family, occupation of main breadwinner, position in family. Same sex classmate, nearest in age (b) Outline ONE limitation of establishing a comparison group at the age of 16 in this study. [2] Any one from: no control over children’s previous experiences, difficult to match variables eg different backgrounds. 2 marks Partially correct answer: lack of explanation 1 8 Outline TWO controls used by Bandura, Ross and Ross in their study on the mitation of aggression. 4] Any two from: matched groups design, observation checklist, double blind design, standardised procedure, size of bobo doll, pre-levels of aggression, aggression arousal 2 marks each Partially correct answer: identification without description 1 mark each 9 Briefly describe one of the tests carried out on the split-brain patients in the study by Sperry. [2] Any one from: Description of Visuo-tactile, speech, writing, visual tasks 2 marks Partially correct answer: identification with no description 1 mark 10 From the study by Schachter and Singer on emotion: a) Describe the findings for ONE group of participants. 2] Any one from: explanation of findings for epi-ignorant, epi-informed, epi-misinformed, placebo group (identify group and finding) 2 marks (b) Explain how ONE finding from the study supports the two-factor theory of emotion. [2] Any one from: findings from any of the conditions related to two factor Theory, situation, arousal, cognitions 2 marks Partially correct answer: brief or vague answer (only one factor) 1 mark 11 Explain ONE way in which the study by Raine, Buchsbaum, and LaCasse on brain abnormalities in murderers is reductionist. [2]

Any one from: studying the act of murder by looking at brain abnormalities, the use of equipment cannot be generalised to all murderers 2 marks Partially correct answer: OrleT or vague answer, aeTlnltlon 0T reauctlonlsm 1 mark 12 From the study by Dement and Kleitman on sleep and dreaming outline TWO conclusions that can be drawn from the table of results below: [4] Any two from: more dreams were reported during REM indicating relationship between REM sleep and dreaming, some dreams occurred during N-REM sleep indicating an inconclusive relationship between REM sleep and dreaming, there are vast individual differences n the amount of dreams individuals have 2 marks each Partially correct answer: brief or vague answer or finding 1 mark each 13 From the prison study by Haney, Banks and Zimbardo, explain what is meant by the ‘dispositional hypothesis’. [2] The idea that behaviour of prisoners and guards is determined by the personality/ nature/traits, 2 marks Partially correct answer: opposite of situational hypothesis, not related to study 1 mark 14 Outline ONE weakness of the sample in the subway Samaritan study by Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin. [2] Any one from: lack of control over individual differences of articipants, inability to get consent, difficult to debrief.

Also all from same area of America-affects generalisability May have seen experiment before. 2 marks Partially correct answer: identification without explanation 1 mark 15 From the study by TaJfel on intergroup discrimination: (a) Describe ONE way intergroup discrimination was demonstrated in this study. [2] Any one from: allocating fewer points to member of out-group in intergroup choices (maximum in-group profit) Exp 1, allocating fewer points to own group in order to give other groups less (maximum difference in favour of the in-group) Exp 2,2 marks (b) Suggest ONE way in which the intergroup discrimination found in this study could be explained. 2] Any one from: in group/out group theory, Social Identify theory, them and us’ mentality, demand characteristics ie the experiment led the participants to discriminate, competition, school boys compete 2 marks 16 From Milgram’s study on obedience: (a) Identify TWO findings from the study. [2] Any two from: extreme signs of tension shown by the participants sweating, trembling, digging nails into flesh. 65% obedience, 35% were not obedient, participants looked to the experimenter for support/instruction on what to do, articipants were glad to have taken part 1 mark each (b) Suggest how the findings from this study could be used to explain ONE example of obedience outside the laboratory. [2] Any one example from everyday life.

Could include: reference to Holocaust or other event in history or every-day example, reference to obedience/ authority figure 2 marks 1 / In tne study Dy HraDa ana Grant tne DlacK cn llaren snowed greater preTerence Tor the black doll than those in the earlier study by Clark and Clark. Suggest ONE explanation for this finding. [2] Any one from: black pride movement, black dolls ore common 2 marks Partially correct answer: identification without explanation 1 18 From the study by Rosenhan (on being sane in insane places), explain ONE disadvantage of conducting a field experiment. [2] Any one from: lack of control over variables, ethics-no consent, withdrawal etc, not replicable Partially correct answer: disadvantage not related to Rosenhan study 1 mark 19 The review by Gould outlines Yerkes use of IQ tests to measure intelligence: (a) Outline ONE strength of using quantitative data to measure intelligence. 2] Any one from: can compare people easily, less interpretation required to analyse, more bjective, less bias in analysis, quick, must be linked to intelligence. 2 marks Partially correct answer: strength not related to measuring intelligence 1 mark (b) Outline ONE weakness of using quantitative data to measure intelligence. [2] Any one from: reductionist measure of intelligence, may not be valid, may lead to scientific racism where races are compared/discrimination linked to intelligence Partially correct answer: weakness not related to measuring intelligence 1 mark 20 Outline TWO differences found between the personalities of Eve White and Eve Black in the study by Thigpen and Cleckley on multiple personality disorder. ] Any one from: IQ differences, memory differences, projective test differences, EEG, observed differences by therapist eg dress, mannerisms 2 marks each Other appropriate answers: must be able to identify difference 2 marks each Partially correct answer: identification without outline 1 mark each 2540 Mark Scheme January 2007 Cognitive psychology 1 From the study by Loftus and Palmer outline one conclusion that can be drawn about eyewitness testimony. [2] Any one from: it is not reliable; memory is made up from information received at the time of the event and after, Eye Witness Testimony EWT) is easily distorted by leading questions. 2 marks Partially correct answer: Finding e. g. bout verbs without conclusion 1 mark 2 The term ‘quasi experiment’ can refer to a study where the experimental conditions occur naturally. Explain why the study by Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith on autism is a quasi experiment. [2] The Independent Variable was whether the children were Down’s Syndrome, autistic or ‘normal’ this variable occurred naturally rather than being created by the experimenters. Must make reference to conditions. 2 marks Partially correct answer – lack of detail from the study 1 mark From tne review Dy DeregowsKl on perception 0T plctures: (a) Outline one example of cultural bias. [2] Any one from: The materials that were used were unfamiliar to some of the participants; the pictorial depth cues were western; reference to anecdotal evidence. marks Partially correct answer: lack of relationship to the study, no examples from study. 1 mark (b) Suggest one advantage of conducting cross-cultural research. [2] Any one from: different cultures allow the role of environment to be studied; it is possible to see cultural universals. 2 marks Partially correct answer more generalisable 1 mark From the study by Gardner and Gardner describe two of the training techniques used to teach Washoe sign language. [4] Any two from: imitation, babbling, instrumental conditioning, repetition. Answer must include description for full marks. 2 marks each Partially correct answer: identification of training method with no description. mark each 5 In the study by Hodges and Tizard a variety of self-reports were taken from the exinstitutional children and the comparison groups. Outline one limitation of any of the self-reports in this study. [2] Any one from: ethics of asking children questions bout personal issues, children may not want to tell the truth about their personal lives, limitations of standardised tests such as Rutter B. 2 marks Partially correct answer: limitation of self reports not linked to study. 1 mark 6 Explain how the evidence from the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross could support the nurture view of aggression. [2] The finding that children who viewed the aggressive/non-aggressive model showed greater imitation of aggression; support for Social Learning Theory. marks Partially correct answer no reference to effect of models 1 mark 7 From the study by Samuel and Bryant on conservation: a) Identify two of the independent variables. [2] Any two from: Age of the children, one or two questions, materials (mass, number, volume) 1 mark each (b) Outline one way in which the study may not have been valid. [2] Any one from: ecological validity, laboratory setting, artificial nature of the task, OR problems with measurement including demand characteristics, predictive validity, face validity. Must give details from study 2 marks Partially correct answer: lacks explanation, reference to cognitive stages 1 mark 8 Freud suggested that little Hans was going through the Oedipus Complex.

Describe wo pieces of evidence from the study which would support this claim. [4] Any two from: His fear of horses was symbolic of his fear of his father (Oedipus Complex) as he was afraid of white horses with black around the mouth and wearing blinkers which Freud suggested resembled Hans’ father. Hans also said ‘daddy don’t trot away from me’ and ‘daddy you are so white’. Hans and his father also played horses. Hans’ Tear tnat tne norse woul a Dlte nvm was Interpreted Dy Freud as symoollslng tne Tear that his father would castrate him. Hans’ fascination with his widdler. His Jealousy at the birth of his sister. Dream about giraffes. Dream about being married to his mother.

Partially correct answer: feature of Oedipus Complex not linked to Hans/ study OR detail from study not linked to Oedipus complex 1 mark each 9 Explain why in the study by Sperry, the split-brain patients had one eye covered during the visual task. [2] The eye was covered so that it was easier to control the left and right visual fields in the other eye. 10 From the study by Schachter and Singer identify two ways in which the emotional state of the participants was measured. [2] Any two from: Rating scales, observation. 1 mark each 1 From the study by Raine, Buchsbaum and LaCasse on brain abnormalities in murderers: (a) Explain why the murderers had been referred for a brain scan. 2] To obtain evidence relating to a Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) defense or to capability of understanding the Judicial process (incompetence to stand trial), to obtain information for diminished capacity. 2 marks (b) Identify two characteristics that were used to match the murderers with the control group. [2] Any two from: sex, age, schizophrenia. 1 mark each 12 From the study by Dement and Kleitman on sleep and dreaming outline two eatures of the procedure that increased reliability. [4] Any two from: the participants were woken over several nights, several participants were used, a tape recorder was used to record descriptions of their dreams, objective measurement. Any details of standard procedure e. g. doorbell to wake participants.

Partially correct answer quantitative data with no explanation 1 mark each 13 From the study by Milgram on obedience, outline one piece of evidence which showed the participants were convinced of the reality of the situation. [2] Any one from: the severe reactions of the participants including digging their fingernails into heir flesh; sweating and trembling. They claimed afterwards in post experimental interviews that they did believe the situation was real. 2 marks 14 Describe one way that the participants thought they had been divided into groups, in the experiments on intergroup discrimination by TaJfel. [2] Any one from: preference for Klee or Kandinsky picture, under or over estimators of number of dots on a screen. marks Partially correct answer questions about the welfare of the learner, ‘stressed’ without example given 1 mark 15 From the study by Haney, Banks and Zimbardo: a) Identify two features of the prison simulation that led to the negative behaviour of tne guards. 12 Any two Trom: tne unlTorms, IOentlTlcatlon Dy numDer, tne control over basic behaviour, too much power for the guards, arbitrary control, social isolation. 1 mark each (b) Suggest one way that the findings from this study could be applied to real prisons. [2] Any one from: changes to distribution of power, uniforms, prison layout, activities. Partially correct answer: suggestion not based on findings of the study. 1 16 Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin used observations in their study on subway samaritans. Outline one strength and one weakness of using observations in this study. 4] Strengths: the observers were able to record unobtrusively posing as members of the public, they recorded a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data, observer effects were avoided, two observers were used (inter observer reliability) Weaknesses: view of the observers may have been obstructed on busy train, fear of being caught, may have missed some behaviour/responses of the public 2 marks each Partially correct answer: strength or weakness of observations not linked to the study. 1 mark each Psychology of individual differences 17 From the review by Gould identify two facts’ that emerged from the IQ testing on military recruits carried out by Yerkes. [2] Any two from: the average mental age of White American adults stood Just above the level of moronity: 13. European immigrants could be graded by their country of origin. The Negro lay at the bottom of the scale with an average mental age of 10. 41. mark each 18 From the study by Rosenhan identify two features of hospital life that resulted in the pseudopatients experiencing negative feelings such as powerlessness and depersonalisation. 2] Any two from: staff ignored patients, lack of privacy ??” no toilet door locks, lack of contact with staff, reliance on medication, lack of eye contact, deprivation of legal rights, restricted freedom of movement, no privacy over medical history, physical examination in semi public room, verbal and physical abuse were witnessed, impersonal environment. 19 In the study by Thigpen and Cleckley on multiple personality disorder a variety of methods were used including a projective test. (a) Describe what a ‘projective’ test measures. 2] Tests a person’s responses to ambiguous stimuli with the assumption that this will eflect their unconscious fears and motivations. 2 marks Partially correct answer: description of inkblot test, inkblot test 1 mark (b) Explain why a variety of methods were used to collect data in this study. [2] A variety of methods allows concurrent validity to be established; this provided more credible evidence for their diagnosis of MPD. So that a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data could be collected and compared. To increase certainty of diagnosis. 2 marks Partially correct answer to allow in-depth/detailed study 1 mark 20 Hraba and Grant examined the racial preferences of black and white children.

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