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Netball is a game commonly played by females. Netball is a fast paced game involving the players to use many skills as well as having a good communication between the team players. Depending on the position that is being played, the game of netball will rely heavily on the anaerobic energy system with the aerobic energy system assisting in recovery between each energy burst. The duration of netball is 60 minutes consisting of four quarters of 15 minutes where there is a 3 or 5 minute break. The netball court is 30. 5 meters in length and 15. 25 meters wide. Although the etball court is divided into three sections measuring 10. 7 meters and there are restrictions on which sections of the court particular players can be in. The player that I am training, Sophia, plays the centre position. The centre in the game is allowed over all sections of the court with the restrictions of the goal circle. The centre is one of the most important positions to play in the game as they start with the ball and support all the other positions. Their main task is to link the defence players to the goal or attacking players and is to play the role of both defence and attack. In training Sophia there are three types of training that needs to be taken into account.

The first type of training is aerobic. Aerobic training refers to the breathing that controls the amount of oxygen that helps the muscles to burn fuel and move. The types of training methods best suited for the centre position is fartlek training. Fartlek training also known as ‘Speed play is a type of training that involves a higher intensity of interval running involving no rest period and focuses on improving speed and cardiovascular endurance. Fartlek not only works on the aerobic energy system ut also the anaerobic energy system which is a skill that needs to be developed for all netball players.

This is relevant to the centre position due to the fact that they are constantly running around the court with short bursts of power and speed at a precise moments when needing to defend or attack. These burst of power/speed will only last for at most 10 or 12 metres which goes for a duration of about 5 or so seconds. As a result if Sophia is constantly having these short bursts of power, the build-up of lactic acid in her muscles will continue to increase to the point that she an no longer continue with it.

Therefore by incorporating fartlek training Sophia will be able to maintain and improve the amount the buildup of lactic acid in her muscles as well as having faster reactions when needing short burst of power to defend her opponent or needing to quickly pass the ball to the attacking part of the team. An example of fartlek training that Sophia could incorporate is the saltin fartlek. This involves 10 minutes of warm-up and cool-down. Throughout the workout Sophie will run hard for about 30 seconds minutes with 2 minute Jogging recovery which should e repeated at least 6 times.

Consequently this fartlek training is significant as it mimics the type of running that Sophia would normally do in a game and so it is important that this is done correctly so that Sophia will be able to outrun her component ana wlll nave tne endurance to contlnually ao tnls Tor 60 minutes. By doing fartlek training Sophia is strengthen her aerobic energy system and it will consequently be beneficial to her performance. Furthermore if her aerobic system is strengthened she will need less time to recover after using the anaerobic system, hich is the aim of the fartlek training that Sophia must include.

Fartlek training will also improve the anaerobic energy system. In training the anaerobic energy system, the buildup of lactic acid which causes fatigue will minimise thus increasing her tolerance to lactic acid, assisting in stronger and longer segments of speed, power and/or strength throughout the game. Anaerobic training can incorporate the strengthening of organs and muscles on most areas of the body therefore impacting positively on Sophia’s ability to perform the anaerobic actions necessary for netball, such as Jumping or intercepting a pass.

The second type of training is flexibility. Flexibility refers to our ability to bend, stretch and twist our Joints without causing injury. The two types of training methods that would be suitable for Sophia is dynamic flexibility and static flexibility. Dynamic stretching is the ability to perform extensive muscular movements causing joints to go through a full range of motion. Dynamic flexibility is an appropriate form of stretching for Sophia before a netball game as it warms up her muscles by imitating the muscular movements she will experience throughout the game.

By oing dynamic flexibility the muscles are being stretched to their limit multiple times and as a result the muscle fibres expand causing her body to become more flexible. As a result her muscle coordination is improved thus improving her performance. Dynamic stretching also raises the muscle and core body temperature thus preventing the chance of an injury. An example of dynamic stretching that Sophia can perform in order to warm up her muscle before the games is high knees.

High knees are a suitable exercise because it not only warms up the muscles and imitates the movement she will perform in the ame but it will improve her running form. High knees also improves lower body speed, power and as mentioned flexibility. This is important for the centre position as they need to be able to perform all this skills to the best of their ability, if she can possess these skills then she will be able to out run her opponent and have stronger jumps and defensive skills, therefore making her of higher quality. An example of dynamic stretching that is useful for Sophia is arm swings.

This involves swinging the arms to an overhead position forwards and backwards. It is crucial that the arms are armed up in order to be able to have optimum performance as playing the centre position means that she will need to use her arms a great deal in order to have strong passes, to strongly try and obstruct or distract her opponent and in order to comfortably receive passes. Arm swings are a beneficial stretch as it also warms up the shoulders as well as the arms and could also incorporate body movements to warm up the entire body.

This is significant as the risk of injury can be significantly decreased and the tightening of muscles can be reduced allowing for Sophia to have ptlmum perTormance. Static stretching is an appropriate stretch for when Sophia is cooling down, not Just after a game but after exercise in general. Static stretching refers to the technique where a muscle is gradually lengthened and held in the position for about 10 – 30 seconds. Static stretching would be used for cool down as our muscles are already warmed up and static stretching is not strenuous our flexibility can improve and there is less chance of muscle soreness or stiffness.

Static stretching will help improve flexibility and mobility as well as prevent injuries from occurring. This is due to the fact that the muscles are already warm and flexible thus over all flexibility can be improved. Flexibility is important in netball as netballers need to be able to stretch enough to intercept a pass or receive a pass as well as dodging or pivoting to be able to successfully maneuver these passes. Furthermore if Sophia is reducing the risk of an injury and improving her skills in passing and receiving the ball she is consequently improving her performance.

An example of static stretching that Sophia could do is stretches for the hamstrings. This type of stretch is beneficial to Sophia as it allows for a health blood flow and fluid exchange, it will reduce the soreness of that muscle and allow for greater flexibility especially after our muscle fibres have already been warmed up. Stretching the hamstring muscles as part of cool down will allow for greater flexibility as the muscle fibres are already warm enabling her to stretch further.

By stretching the hamstrings, if there is a buildup of lactic acid stretching will help to release the buildup thus helping to loosen and lengthen the muscle fibres. The last type of training that Sophia needs to incorporate is strength training. Strength training relates to the greatest force that muscles can exert in a single maximal effort’. The type of strength methods that would be suitable for Sophia is free weight training. Free weight training is strength training using weights that are not attached to a structural device for example dumbbells.

Free weight training is using the force of gravity to oppose the force generated by muscle through concentric or eccentric contractions. Free weight training is appropriate for Sophia as it increases muscle trength, builds muscle and improves muscle endurance. Free weight training was chosen over fixed weight training because it allows for maximum muscle gain, it is more of a natural strength development and it allows for more explosive movements to be developed.

By doing free weight training Sophia will be able to improve her stability and balance due to the fact that it helps the Joints of the body to become more stable and it also prevents muscle imbalance which permits the Joints to work more effectively. By doing strength training Sophia will also be able to develop her skills to optimum performance. This is a result of Sophia improving her muscular power which could then allow her to perform good distance throws or Jumping with intense power enabling her to more rapidly obtain the ball.

For example Dlcep curls Is an exercise tne sopnla can Incorporate. In order Tor tne bicep curls to improve her power, Sophia will need to do 2 to 10 repetitions of medium weights for 3 or 6 sets at a fast pace with 3 to 5 minutes of rest between each set. Consequently by doing bicep curls Sophia will experience hypertrophy, therefore an increase in muscle fibres which will then enable her to be able to mprove her explosive power and when it comes to performing movements such as throwing the ball a long distance, she will be able to execute these moves.

Furthermore if Sophia has good upper strength then she will be able to perform other skills such as holding off components to form a space to Jump, holding her position when the ball is in her arms or even maintaining endurance to keep with her opponent will be significantly improved. Lunges using free weights is another exercise that Sophia can incorporate. By doing Lunges Sophia is gaining leg strength nd muscular endurance therefore her Jumps will be more powerful and she will be able to endure more burst of power.

Thus this is bringing Sophia closer to obtaining optimal performance. In conclusion the type of training and training methods used will significantly determine the success of the sportsman because if the sportsman is using the wrong methods of training then unnecessary skills will be developed and their performance will not be at the standard that it should be. It is also important that the exercises are doing correctly and in accordance with the training principals.

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