World History Paper Why do some nations fail and other prosper? From the very beginning of history till nowadays the question of “why do some nations fail and others prosper” has always been one of the cornerstones of political and economic debates. One of the Nobel Laureates, Robert Lucas said that if you started to think about this question, you should stop thinking anything else and only focus on the question.
By working so hard and thinking deeply, some scholars have provided a number of valuable notions about this question and among those cholars, two of them : Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson are known as the best ones as they wrote a book so called “Why nations fail” in the context of the origins of power, prosperity and poverty. In this book, the authors highlight the significance of effective political institutions for any nation not to fail and develop fast.
As other approaches to this issue, for instance, Thomas Malthus ties the problem of not prospering to the issue of overpopulation; on the other hand Adam Smith was claiming that the difference between poverty and wealth depended on the matter of he relative freedom of the markets and so on. To sum up, the rises and falls in the history of some nations have always been unescapable and the role of political institutions, geography, economic governance, historical events such as revolutions, becoming colonies have been the distinguished features of this ongoing problem.
In the book of “Why nations fail”, Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson divide political institutions into parts therefore; on the one hand, there is “extractive institutions” which block the growth of a nation, on the other there is “inclusive nstitutions” which do not. For instance, if we compare two Korean countries, we can see that South Korea has become such a powerful country over years because of her inclusive political institutions, meanwhile North Korea has a fully dictatorship regime that blocks her growth.
Furthermore, the differences between the North part of Italy and the South part are related to the types of political institutions, therefore, in the Northern cities of the country such as Milano and Torino have a great economic success however, the South is lack of such development because Mafias block nnovations over there. Moreover, there were some states wherein extractive political institutions were dominating also gained success in the history, for example, the Germany of 19th century prospered under the rule of extractive institutions as it was a state run by elites.
Also, at the end of 18 th century Germany was the first that introduced compulsory education, social insurance and so on. Even in the reign of Nazi Germany which is known one of the countries that had very strict rules over her population, Germany was one of the best innovating and economically strong states f the history. In addition, during the First World War was the leading country of the chemical industry from which America gained important chemical for the wars however; scholars claim that all these successes were not because of the extractive Instltutlons out tney were tne consequences 0T very well governed economy.
Here, the final key is that it is obvious that the prosperity and the poverty of nations are so much depended on their political institutions as these institutions ought to be free of corruption, disciplined in their decisions and principal actions. If a state is able to form such stability in her governance, the role of legal and political institutions will definitely assist nations to achieve and maintain high levels of prosperity otherwise, nations will become weaker and weaker day by day and that can be one of the main consequences of their fail.
Unfortunately, for several nations during the history it was an unavoidable problem to become a colony of other great empires or states. Therefore, there has always been a strong competition between the great countries; nd each of them wants to become a more powerful state in a comparative manner. In the history of big states we can very easily observe that having more colonies were pointed like your prestige among other great powers.
In order to realize one’s great plans, such big countries were playing the destinies of some little or less powerful nations. The states like Spain, France and Great Britain were known as the most important countries on that issue, over the centuries, they were occupying some poorer regions and establishing their colonies and began to collapse almost verything in these regions moreover, these regions were mainly some Latin American and oriental regions.
Colonies were almost fully depended on the colonial powers and these powers had created their extractive ruling system over the colonies. Furthermore, colonial powers placed different groups with long histories of conflict and mutual enmity into a single “country’. In addition, this is unquestionably true that if a nation wants to develop, it should make its decisions itself, it ought to have an independent government and it should form its constitution.
However, at that period of time colonies did not have such an authority and they were simply exploiting by great powers. Although, we can conclude that being a colony Just helps any nation in a negative way, but there are some countries which have been developed over the years but also were the colonies once. For instance, Mexico can be one of the good paradigms as it was a colony ruled by Spain but nowadays even we can see the name of Mexico in 620. This is for sure that the development of lots of nations is directly related to their geographical locations.
In most cases, although some states or regions are not governed effectively politically, or do not have strong economies, their geographies become the most significant aspects of their development. For instance, during the history Venice was collapsed time by time but the region and its nation live in a very good condition. Of course, here the main success of this development, prosperity is Venice’s location, beauty. Dozens of tourist have been visiting Venice and are still visiting that makes such a little region become one of the riches places of the universe.
Unfortunately, we can count a number of African nations that are lack of efficient geographic conditions, even very often they cannot find water to drink or something to eat and also, if they have a big population, it creates another problem to survive too as it becomes impossible to share something equally among people. In consequent, tnose natlons Decome poorer cay Dy cay ana even Tall In tne ena To sum up, to find an exact answer to the question of why some nations fail and others prosper is so controversial.
It requires long debates, researches to reach out the best onclusions however, the role political institutions, geography, colonialism in the history has left its remarkable traces to understand and answer the question a bit easily. References: Acemoglu, Daron and James Robinson (2012): Why Nations Fail, Crown Business Boldrin, Michele and David Levine (2008): Against Intellectual Monopoly, Cambridge U niversity Press Kellecioglu, Deniz. “Why some countries are poor and some rich – a non-Eurocentric view. ” real-world economics review. 52 (2010): http://paecon. net/PAEReview/issue52/Kellecioglu52. pdf page. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.