World war one (core study) The reasons for the stalemate on the western Front Russia mobilised faster than expected. Schlieffen plan was modified a. Helmuth Von Moltke modified the plan b. Splitting the army i. Defending against Russia it. Defending Lorraine c. Circling Paris i. Left a gap causing the French soldiers retreating back in to Paris it. Damaged the German troops in number d. Resistance from Belgium i. Leading Britain in to the war it. German delay (food supply) e. New technology favoured the defensive side. The nature of trench warfare and life in the trenches dealing with experiences of oth allied and German soldiers.
The Germans retreated back to Aisne, choose the most advantageous position a. permanent trenches protect by barbed wires, mines and sandbags German fortifications usually involves heavy artillery barrage followed by soldiers going “over the top” Weapons (rifles, grenades, gas, flamethrowers and in 1916 onwards tanks) “Frontal assaults” resulted in horrendous casualties Life in the trenches were constant of boredom, routine, “shell shock”, disease and vermin and the “stench of death” The constant rain made the trenches muddy Contend with simpers and constant raid and patrols
Overview of strategies and tactics to break the stalemate including key battles: Verdun, the Somme and Passchendaele. British and French generals had taken the offensive against the entrenched Germans Verdun, the Somme and Passchendaele resulted in massive casualties New weapons were introduced such as poison gas in august 1915 and tanks in July 1916 Gas had a negligible impact while tanks did not reach their combat potential until July 1918 New tactics- Germans successfully employed small elite groups of storm troopers in March 1918 The British introduced the creeping barrage
Evolution in warfare that combines the use of infantry, artillery, tanks and aircraft Allied attempts to break the stalemate including a naval blockade of Germany. Changing attitudes of allied and German soldiers to the war over time. Outbreak of the war was greeted by patriotic favour and enthusiasm in all countries. ] British men rushed to enlist a. hought that the war would end after Christmas German military law proclamation called up all men form military service By the time of Christmas both side were entrenched in stalemate Christmas pay was marked by an “unofficial truce” along the frontline. Allies and German fraternised in “no man’s land” snarlng glts, slnglng carols ana eve playing a game 0T TootDall commanders ordered the troops to resume fghting the next day.
War weariness set I and troops start questioning the reason for fighting Enthusiasm keen replaced by a sense of grim duty Britain introduced conscription in 1916 German sailors contributing to eventual revolution in 1918 November 1918 end of war Home front in Britain and Germany Total war and its social and economic impact on civilians in Britain and Germany Total war : a government’s mobilisation of all its resources to support the efforts of its wn troops and undermine those of its opponents Both home fronts a. Harnessed the power of patriotism and citizenship b.
Soldiers and civilians were expected to make great personal sacrifices c. Military depended on the home front for the support essential for continuing war on this scale. d. Citizens were expected to take up war loans, accept the “call up” and go about life without complaint. British home front a. Zeppelin raids on London in April 191 pulled Britons from all works of life into the war effort. b. Civilians became “soldiers” of the home front c. Government introduced laws and regulations to provide authorities with the power o restrict people’s lives d. DOAR i. 914, Defence of the Realm Act. i’. Provided the British government with power to intervene in daily life of the British people iii. Manufacturing, agriculture, security and information came under the scrumtiny of DORA ‘v. Imprisonment without trials, cut social activities v. Introduced day light saving v’. Restricted the opening hours of public houses in an effort to cut national levels of alcohol consumption Lord Horatio Kitchener appointed secretary of state for war a. Directed the war strategy and planned for this lengthy conflict by expanding the army from 20 to 70 divisions.